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A reassessment of artistic relationships between ancient Greece and other regions of the Aegean basin

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Abbreviations     xiii
Plates     xxv
Introduction     1

Chapter 1. Imports     19
Bronzes     24
Faience     38
Glass     49
Gold     52
Ivory     53
Lead     66
Pottery     66
Scarabs     86
Stone (primarily Lyre Player seals)     92
Catalogue B     95
Bronze     95
Glass     101
Iron     102

Chapter 2. Commentary on Imports     109
Bronzes     109
Faience     136
Iron     139
Ivory     147
Pottery     148
Summary     149

Chapter 3. Immigrant Presence in Crete     153
Ivory Craftsmen Living in Crete     156
Eight-Seventh Century North Syrian Metalworkers?     160
Nonspecialist Immigrants at Arkades (Aphrati)     165
Phoenician Tripillar Shrine     172
An Unguent Factory Manned by Foreigners near Knosses     176
Summary     185

Chapter 4. The Tekke Tomb Reconsidered     191
The Tomb     192
Jeweler's Materials     197
Jeweler's Deposits     200
A Jeweler's Tomb?     205
Foundation Deposits     207
The Jewelry     213
Summary      234

Conclusions     247
Cited Bibliography     261
Index     285
Plates     299
Import Catalogue     301
Catalogue B (No Longer Imports)     327
Comparanda     329


While scholars have long acknowledged the importance of artistic relationships between ancient Greece and the Near East, recent discourse on multi-culturalism and diversity has ignited new debate over these issues both among scholars and in the broader public. Charges and countercharges of historical revisionism and systematic undervaluation of the debt owed by ancient Greece to the Near East and Africa have polarized the debate and obscured the actual evidence. In Imports and Immigrants, Gail L. Hoffman explores the primary archaeological basis for such discussions, namely the preserved physical remains, providing a foundation for constructive discussion of the relations and exchanges between ancient Greece and the Near East.
Drawing together all the evidence and arguments for Near Eastern immigrants in Crete, Hoffman demonstrates there are basic problems with the accepted interpretations. Evidence of continued technical expertise casts doubt on the necessity of reintroduction, while careful scrutiny of the evidence supporting immigrant craftsmen reveals many inadequacies in the currently accepted analyses.
Imports and Immigrants identifies the need for reassessing all dimensions of the question of artistic relationships between ancient Greece and other regions of the Aegean basin and suggests new avenues of inquiry in this important debate. The volume also reassesses arguments made for the presence of Near Eastern immigrants in Crete. This book includes a catalogue indispensable for future work on these issues and illustrations of most of the known imports to Crete.
Gail L. Hoffman is Associate Professor of Greek Art and Archaeology, Department of Classics, Yale University.