This volume collects outstanding papers in the sciences, humanities, and social sciences that have been organized by the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, a regional, interdisciplinary professional organization. Essays cover topics such as medicine, geology, paleontology, botany, forestry, zoology, art, literature, linguistics, economics, geography, history, and political science. Essays related to the state of Michigan are a particular emphasis; however national and international topics are also included. Contributing authors are primarily affiliated with colleges and universities across Michigan, though independent scholars are also featured. Photos, illustrations, charts, graphs, and tables appear as needed.