Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science Arts and Letters is an annual volume of papers published under the joint direction of the Council of the Academy and of the Executive Board of the Graduate School of the University of Michigan. The agreement to publish jointly was an opportunity to establish closer relations between the University and the Academy, thus contributing to higher scholarship and original investigation. In this volume, the editor for the Academy is Henry van der Schalie and the editor for the University is Eugene S. McCartney. This volume from the 1943 annual meeting includes an array of papers on Botany and Forestry, Zoology, Geography and Geology, Psychology, Anthropology, Economics, Folklore, History and Political Science, Language and Literature, Philosophy, and Sociology.