Focusing on the major currents of reforms and nationalism, China Enters the Twentieth Century provides an insightful look into the major changes, and those advocating for them, which took hold in China at the turn of the century. With the reorganization of central government and the array of new, competing interests and ideals, stemming from dynastic nobles to populist civilians, contemporary scholars have had many possible methods of approaching this period. However, Daniel H. Bays turns an eye to Chang Chih-tung (1837–1909), an eminent politician and Viceroy of Liangguang, whose political life serves well to mark the course of the Chinese political and cultural landscape. In doing so, Bays challenges old ideas on what provided the foundation for China's entry into the twentieth century.