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Introduction by William H. Riker     1

Part I: The Specification of Issues

Spatial Realignment and the Mapping of Issues in U.S. History: The Evidence from Roll Call Voting by Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal     13

Issues, Dimensions, and Agenda Change in Postwar Democracies: Longterm Trends in Party Election Programs and Newspaper Reports in Twenty-Three Democracies by Ian Budge     41

Rhetorical Interaction in the Ratification Campaigns by William H. Riker     81

Part 2: The Origin of Issues

Domestic and International Imperatives in the Specification of Foreign Policy Objectives by Bruce Bueno de Mesquita and David Lalman     127

On the Evolution of Political Issues by Edward G. Carmines and James A. Stimson     151

Agenda Formation and Cabinet Government by Michael Laver and Kenneth A. Shepsle     169

Agreement, Defection, and Interest-Group Influence in the U.S. Congress by Richard A. Smith     183

Part 3: The Manipulation of Issues

Agenda Setting and Beyond: Television News and the Stength of Political Issues by Shanto Iyengar     211

Free Trade in Canadian Elections: Issue Evolution in the Long and the Short Run by Richard Johnston, Andre Blais, Henry E. Brady, and Jean Crete     231

Contextualizing Regime Change: Transforming Windows and Systematic Reforms in Eastern Europe by George J. Graham, Jr.      255

Contributors     285


What we know about how agendas determine outcomes